## Master in Electrical Engineering (Smart Grid)

## Compulsory Courses

Per unit system, reactance diagram, Distribution system and its components, voltage dependent load models – constant impedance, constant current and constant power, load characteristics, demand and demand interval, load flow analysis covering Gauss Seidal and newton Raphson method, Power system stability- voltage, angle and frequency, Power system protection- types of relays used and principles.

An introduction to Diode, thyristor, Gate turn off thyristors, BJTs, MOSFETs, IGBTs, principles of switch mode power conversion, DC-DC converters - DC Choppers, Buck Converter, Boost Converter, Buck-Boost Converter, C`uk Converter, Effects of Parasitics, AC-DC PWM rectifiers - Line-Commutated Controlled Rectifiers, force-Commutated Three-Phase Controlled Rectifiers, DC-AC PWM inverters - Single-Phase Voltage Source Inverters, three-Phase Voltage Source Inverters, Current Source Inverters.Grid interface of renewable energy resources, Soft switching and resonant converters, practical issues in power electronic converters, selection criteria for diodes, MOSFETs and IGBTs; gate drive circuit based on Thermal management, EMI and layout issues.

Phasor representation of Signals in time and frequency domains. Phasor estimation of Nominal and Off Nominal Frequencies, Quality of Phasor Estimates and Transient Monitors, Estimates of Unbalanced Input Signals, Frequency Estimation. Phasor Measurement Units and Phase Data Concentrators. Transient Response of Phasor Measurement Units. Phasor Measurement Applications

**Smart Grid Definition**, Need and Applications, Standardization **Smart Grid Communications** Two-way Digital Communications Paradigm, Network Architectures, IP-based Systems, Power Line Communications, Advanced Metering Infrastructure **Demand Response** Definition, Applications, Pricing and Energy Consumption Scheduling, Controllable Load Models, Dynamics, and Challenges, Electric Vehicles and Vehicle-to-Grid Systems, Demand Side Ancillary Services **Wide Area Measurement** Sensor Networks, Phasor Measurement Units, Communications Infrastructure, Fault Detection and Self-Healing Systems, Applications and Challenges **Security and Privacy** Cyber Security Challenges in Smart Grid, Load Altering Attacks, False Data Injection Attacks, Defense Mechanisms, Privacy Challenges **Economics and Market Operations** Energy and Reserve Markets, Market Power, Generation Firms, Locational Marginal Prices, Financial Transmission Right.

The Mathematical Foundations of Big Data Systems, Large Random Matrices, Linear Spectral Statistics of the Sample Covariance Matrix, Large Hermitian Random Matrices and Free Random Variables, Large Non-Hermitian Random Matrices, Probability Theory, Matrix Hypothesis Testing using Large Random Matrices, Applications and Requirements of Smart Grid, Grid Monitoring and State Estimation, False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation, State Estimation, Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), State Estimation and Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test, Demand Response, Communications and Sensing.

## Elective Courses

Properties of feedback control systems, Mathematical models of basic components, State-variable models of feedback systems, time-domain analysis, stability, transform analysis, frequency domain techniques, root-locus, design of single input-output systems, simple compensation techniques.

Examples of Discrete Data and Digital Control Systems, Signal Conversion and Processing, Sampling theorem, z-transform and inverse z-transform. The state-variable approach. Stability of Digital control system. Digital Simulation and digital redesign.

Review of discrete signals and systems in temporal and spectral domains, data acquisition, discrete transforms (DFT, DCT and z-transforms), digital filters—HR and FIR, spectral estimation, adaptive filters, multi-rate signal processing, Wavelets and joint time-frequency analysis, and real-time signal processing.

Protective relaying philosophy and fundamental considerations, transmission lines, rotating machines and transformer protection, Relay input sources and their performance. Static relays. Basic components of static relays, Comparator, Basic static relays used in protective schemes.

Reasons, extent, issues and technical impacts of embedded or dispersed generation. Economic impacts of embedded generation on transmission, distribution and central generation systems. Embedded generation plants, combined heat and power plants, renewable energy generation- small scale hydro-generation, wind power plants, off-shore wind energy, solar photovoltaic generation. Power flow studies of an embedded generation scheme, balanced and unbalanced fault studies as applied to an embedded generation scheme. Stability studies of an embedded generation scheme, electromagnetic transient studies, and generators for embedded generation, power quality and protection of embedded generation.

Definition of terms used in Reactive Power Management. Quality in electrical power supply. Indices and cost of power quality, justification for capital cost, costing of reactive power. Reactive power requirement of utilities. Reactive power supply by utilities. Systems and tools for management of reactive power by utilities. User-side scenario of reactive power management, compensation, planning, selection of equipments, consideration of harmonics. Reactive power management in different types of industrial plants.

**Electricity supply industry** Structure, Operation and Management of the Electricity Supply Chain; Policy, Stakeholders, Influencers; Liberalization, Deregulation and Regulation; Market Structures for Electricity; Power Capacity; Location; Environment, Amenity, Corporate Responsibility; Price and Derivatives Modelling, relevant standards.**Designing wholesale physical electricity markets** Characteristics and structures of electricity markets, Scarcity pricing: the role and design of balancing mechanisms and reserves, Managing congestion - Nodal pricing of power and other approaches, relevant standard practices in different countries.**Environmental policies and hybrid models** Environmental policies and their impact on electricity markets Design of market compatible renewables support mechanisms

Elements of power systems for communications and networking, SCADA systems, Smart meters, Advanced meter infrastructure (AMI). Advanced Metering Infrastructure Standards; Power line carrier communication (PLCC). Overview of smart grid network design and security, WAN and FAN Technology for smart grid, Smart grid data management, communication network transformation. Mediums of communication network and cost-benefit analyses including fibre-optics and wireless microwave links including 5G. Smart grid communication networks and protocols such as, IEEE 802.15.4, Zigbee, Z-wave, WiMAX, wireless routing protocols, GRPS and RPL, network performance with node failures, cyber security, network coding, cloud computing. Communication standards for substation and telecontrol, tele-protection equipment and their standards.

Characteristics of Energy Storage System (ESS), Emerging needs for ESS, the roles of electrical energy storage technologies.Types of energy storage system covering mechanical storage systems, electrochemical storage systems, chemical energy storage, electrical storage systems, thermal storage systems. Standards for ESS, technical comparison of ESS technologies. Market for electrical energy storage (EES) covering Smart Grid, Smart Microgrid, Smart House, super capacitors, electric vehicles, Management and control hierarchy of storage systems covering battery storage systems, aggregating EES systems and distributed generation (Virtual Power Plant), Battery SCADA

**Distributed generation systems**; Distributed Generation (DG) definition, types and standards for renewable energy and smart generation, optimum placement of DG, sizing, problems in integration with existing system.**DG operation and control**: Inverter control voltage and current in DG systems; Parallel operation of inverters in distributed Generation systems; Power converter topologies for distributed Generation systems; Voltage and current control of a three-phase Four-wire DG inverter in Island mode; Power flow control of a single distributed Generation unit; Robust stability analysis of voltage and current Control for distributed generation systems; PWM rectifier control for three-phase Distributed Generation system; Integration of Multiple Renewable Energy Sources.

**Smart grid** - Structure, challenges, need for security; European and other country approaches to Privacy and Data Protection in Smart Grids; The Evolution of the Smart Grid Threat Landscape and Cross-Domain Risk Assessment; Resilience Against Physical Attacks; Secure Communications in Smart Grid; Networking and Protocols; Cyber-Secure and Resilient Architectures for Industrial Control Systems; Establishing a Smart Grid Security Architecture; Secure Development Life Cycle; Operational Smart Grid Security; Implementation Experiences from Smart Grid Security Applications and Outlook on Future Research.

Introduction to reliability, availability and power quality; Basic probability theory- Permutation and combination; Application of the binomial distribution; Network modelling and evaluation of simple systems; Network modelling and evaluation of complex systems; Probability distributions in reliability evaluation; System reliability evaluation using probability distributions; Distribution systems reliability—basic techniques and radial networks; Plant and station availability.

**Mathematical Background** matrices, state space representation, optimization techniques, regression.**Static State Estimation** Least error squares (LES) algorithm, least absolute value (LAV) algorithm to solve the linear static estimation problem, Linear constrained LAV problem and its solution, Nonlinear LAV problem and its solution.**Load Modeling for Short-Term Forecasting **different models for short-term load forecasting, introducing three models for winter and summer short-term load forecasting, explaining different factors that affect these models for each season, fitting each model to the different techniques that are used to estimate the parameters of the model.**Fuzzy Regression Systems and Fuzzy Linear Models **covering fuzzy fundamentals, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy linear estimation and regression, fuzzy Short-Term Load Modeling.**Dynamic State Estimation **Discrete Time Systems, Discrete Time-Optimal Filtering, Recursive Least Error Squares.**Load Forecasting** - Load Forecasting using Static State Estimation, Load Forecasting Using Fuzzy Systems, Dynamic Electric Load Forecasting, Electric Load Modeling for Long-Term Forecasting.

**FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission) concepts**: Reactive power control in electrical power transmission, principles of conventional reactive power compensators. Introduction to FACTS, types of FACTS controllers.**Static shunt and series compensators**: Shunt compensation – objectives of shunt compensation, methods of controllable VAR generation, static VAR compensators – SVC, STATCOM, SVC and STATCOM comparison.**Combined compensators**: Unified power flow controller (UPFC) and Interline power flow controller (IPFC) - Introduction, operating principle, independent real and reactive power flow controller and control structure, concepts relating to Reactive power compensation and harmonic current compensation using Active power filters**HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission**: HVDC Transmission system: Introduction, comparison of AC and DC systems, applications of DC transmission, types of DC links, Layout of HVDC system. HVDC Converters.**Control of HVDC system**: Principles of control, Different control features, Introduction to multiterminal DC systems and applications, comparison of series and parallel MTDC systems, Voltage Source Converter based HVDC systems.

**Energy Auditing**: Load calculations, heating load calculation, lighting load calculations, ISO standards, rate of return calculations, life cycle assessment, energy metering, tariff calculations, two-way metering.**Smart Home**: Energy efficient loads, smart and energy efficient devices, PV and wind installation, application of IoT in smart home, recent trends and technologies; Smart Home and Building Automation Standards**Battery Management System (BMS)**: Operation and working of electrochemical batteries, Lithium ion batteries, battery management system and requirement for sensing and high voltage control, BMS design requirements.**Electric Vehicles (EV)**: EV vs. gasoline cars, EV working, Electric motors, Regenerative braking, motor selection, storage technology for EV, Charging of technologies for EVs. Standards for smart storage and plug-in electric vehicles, including standards for electric storage, and E-mobility/plug-in vehicles